Have you ever wondered how our modern calendar came into existence? Have you read the Bible and found the months different from the calendar hanging on your wall? Join me as we walk back in time to discover how our modern calendar came to be.
Ancient civilizations measured time with a variety of calendars. While each was different calender they measured years differently. Ancient civilizations used one of three approaches to measuring months: solar, lunar, or lunisolar.
The solar calendars are set based on the revolution of the earth around the sun. The Egyptians would be an example of an ancient civilization that used a solar calendar that consisted of 365 day years.
The lunar calendars measure time by the phases of the moon. The Sumerians used a lunar calendar. The lunar calendar consisted of twelve months per year, and the months were 29 to 30 days long depending on the month.
With the lunisolar approach, the calendar is set to acknowledge both the phases of the moon and the solar year. The biblical or Hebrew calendar would be an example of a lunisolar calendar. The years are based on the solar year, but the months are based on the phases of the moon.
Our modern calendar began with the Julian calendar that was introduced by the Roman Empire in 46 BC when Julius Caesar. Caesar ordered a new calendar to be developed that would unify the empire under one calendar and better follow the solar year. This calendar is named for him, the Julian calendar. This calendar is still in use by the Eastern Orthodox churches to set the holidays. A few centuries later this calendar was replaced by the Gregorian calendar.
The Gregorian calendar, sometimes referred to as the Christian Calendar, was introduced in 1582. Under Pope Gregory XIII, the Julian calendar was revised. Revisions included adding a leap year every fourth year and changing how the holiday of Easter is determined. Today, the Gregorian calendar is used throughout the world.
Depending on the calendar you are using, days will either begin at sunset or at midnight. Like days, weeks either begin on Sunday or Monday.
Gregorian days: The days of the week came from the Mesopotamian Empire and are related to celestial bodies. Our days are measured from midnight to midnight. Weeks are seven days in length, beginning with Sunday. The names of the days came from the planets of Hellenistic astrology.
Hebrew Calendar: The day is measured from sunset to sunset. The days of the week are named according to their relationship to the Sabbath day.
On the Gregorian calendar, months are named for Roman gods, officials, holidays, or related to Latin numbers. There are twelve months in the year on our modern calendar.
Each month consists of 28 to 31 days.
The years on the Gregorian calendar are calculated in relation to the birth of Jesus. On the modern calendar, the year begins on January 1 and ends on December 31.
That is a brief overview of where our modern calendar came from and how the days and months came to have their names. If you are interested in learning more about the events on the biblical calendar I would invite you to look at our 2022 Biblical Events Calendar today.